Glaukom - vodeći uzrok sljepila PDF Ispis E-mail

Glaukom je najveći uzrok sljepila širom svijeta, posebno u zemljama u razvoju. Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija navela je da je glaukom veća prijetnja za javno zdravlje od katarakta, zato što je sljepilo izazvano glaukomom trajno. Šta je glaukom i ko je u najvećoj opasnosti?

 


Ako mislite da niste u riziku od glaukoma, razmislite još jednom. Glaukom je bolest koja oduzima vid ljudima širom svijeta, a da oni obično i ne znaju da imaju bolest sve dok im ona trajno ne uništi najmanje 40 posto vida. Doktor Alan Robin je specijalista za glaukom. „To je vodeći uzrok sljepila u Sjedinjenim Državama. Kod Hispanaca i Afroamerikanaca, to je drugi po redu uzrok sljepila.“

U Kini i Indiji, glaukom je na drugom mjestu vodećih uzroka sljepila. „Glaukom koji se može vidjeti u podsaharskoj Africi je mnogo agresivniji i izaziva veće sljepilo nego glaukom koji nalazimo kod Amerikanaca, pa čak i kod Afroamerikanaca u Sjedinjenim Državama.“

Doktor Erik Flajšer suočava se sa takvim rasnim razlikama u Medstar bolnici u Vašingtonu. „U velikoj mjeri svako ko ima afričko poreklo ima povećane šanse za razvoj glaukoma.“

Godine su još jedan faktor rizika za glaukom, iako osobe svih uzrasta mogu da ga dobiju. Kako objašnjava doktor Robin, to je grupa oboljenja koja često povećavaju pritisak u očima. Oko je slično satu. I sa druge strane sata na kojoj su brojevi, stvara se tečnost. Ona prolazi kroz vašu zjenicu odnosno sa prednje strane sata između brojeva ili između naličja i kristala. Tu postoji jedan prostor oko ivice koji sprovodi tečnost.“

Kada se taj prostor zapusti, tečnost ne može da napusti oko isto toliko brzo koliko se i napravi. Sve veći pritisak u oku oštećuje i zatim uništava optičke nerve. Rezultat je sljepilo. Taj proces je obično toliko bezbolan i suptilan da ga ljudi i ne primijete. „Obično će primijetiti ako udare u dovratnik zato što su izgubili periferni vid ili će početi da doživljavaju saobraćajne nezgode, zato što nisu vidjeli automobil sa jedne ili druge strane.“

Na sreću, glaukom je moguće jednostavno ustanoviti. Najjednostavniji test može da izmjeri periferni vid. Zato što, kada je u pitanju glaukom, periferni vid prvi nestane. Dobra vijest je da glaukom, ako se ustanovi na vrijeme, može da se tretira. „Ne može da se spriječi, ali može da se tretira“, ističe dr. Alan Robin.

Glaukom nije moguće izliječiti. Ali kako istraživači sve više znaju o tome, sve je veća nada da će jednog dana biti izlječiv, ili će moći da se preduprijedi.
Izvor: VoA News

www.medicina.ba

12.10.2012.

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